Deck Options

Deck options primarily control the way Anki schedules cards. It is recommended that you spend a few weeks with the defaults to get a feel for how Anki works before you start adjusting options. Please make sure you understand the options before changing them, as mistakes could reduce Anki's effectiveness.

Deck options are accessed by:

  • Clicking the gear icon on the Decks screen.
  • Selecting a deck on the Decks screen, and then clicking Options at the bottom of the screen.
  • Clicking on More > Options while in review mode.
  • Pressing o while in review mode.

This page describes the options shown in Anki 2.1.45+, when you have the v2 or v3 scheduler enabled. On older versions, some options will not be available, or will appear in a different section. Please keep in mind that the v1 scheduler is no longer supported in Anki 2.1.50+. If you have not yet updated to v2 or v3, you will be prompted to update when you attempt to review cards in 2.1.50+.

For more info on deck options, please check:


Anki allows you to share options between different decks, to make it easy to update options in many decks at once. To do this, options are grouped into presets. By default, all newly created decks use the same preset.

If you’d like to alter the settings on one deck but not other decks, click the arrow icon in the top right of the Deck Options window. The options are:

  • Save: Saves all modifications you've made since opening the deck options screen.
  • Add: Add a new preset, with the default options.
  • Clone: Clone your current present, which is useful if you just want to modify certain options, keeping the rest as they are.
  • Rename Changes the name of the current preset.
  • Delete Deletes the current preset. This will require that the next sync is a one-way sync.
  • Save to all subdecks. Like Save, but also assigns the selected preset to all subdecks of the currently selected deck.
  • Optimize all presets. When FSRS is enabled, this allows you to optimize the parameters of all presets at once.

Deck Options are not retroactive. For example, if you change an option that controls the delay after failing a card, cards that you failed before changing the option will have the old delay, not the new one.


If your deck has subdecks, each deck can optionally be assigned a different preset. When Anki shows a card, it will check which subdeck the card is in, and use the options for that deck. There are some exceptions:

  • The new cards/day and reviews/day limits behave differently depending on the scheduler version you have selected.
  • The display order options in the v3 scheduler are taken from the deck you select to study, not the deck of the current card.

For example, let's say you have this collection:

- Deck A (Preset 1)
  - Deck A::Subdeck B (Preset 2)
    - Card B1
    - Card B2

Presets 1 and 2 are identical, with two exceptions:

  • Preset 1:
  • New Cards - Learning steps: 1m 10m
  • Display Order - New/review priority: Mix with reviews
  • Preset 2:
  • New Cards - Learning steps: 20m 2h
  • Display Order - New/review priority: Show after reviews

If you choose to study Deck A:

  • Learning steps for all new cards will be 1m 10m (preset 1 applies)
  • All new cards will be mixed with reviews (preset 1 applies)

If you choose to study Subdeck B:

  • Learning steps for all new cards will be 20m 2h (preset 2 applies)
  • All new cards will be shown after reviews (preset 2 applies)

Daily Limits

New Cards/Day

Controls how many new cards are introduced each day you open the program. If you study fewer than the limit, or miss a day, the next day the counts will be back to your limit - they do not accumulate.

When decks are nested (e.g Parent, Parent::Child, Parent::Child::Grandchild), the way the limits are applied depends on the scheduler version.

  • v1 applies parent limits to children, regardless of which deck you click on
  • v2 behaves similarly to v1 for new cards. For reviews, only the limits of the deck you click on are honored.
  • v3 honors the limits of the deck you click on, and any decks inside it. Limits from parents above the deck you clicked on are ignored.

For more information, please see the v3 scheduler page.

Studying new cards will temporarily increase the number of reviews you need to do a day, as freshly learnt material needs to be repeated a number of times before the delay between repetitions can increase appreciably. If you are consistently learning 20 new cards a day, you can expect your daily reviews to be roughly about 200 cards/day. You can decrease the reviews required by introducing fewer new cards each day, or by turning off new card display until your review burden decreases. More than one Anki user has excitedly studied hundreds of new cards over their first few days of using the program, and then become overwhelmed by the reviews required.

Maximum Reviews/Day

Allows you to set an upper limit on the number of reviews to show each day. When this limit is reached, Anki will not show any more review cards for the day, even if there are some waiting. If you study consistently, this setting can help to smooth out occasional peaks in due card counts, and can save you from a heart attack when returning to Anki after a week off. When reviews have been hidden due to this option, a message will appear in the congratulations screen, suggesting you consider increasing the limit if you have time.

In the v3 scheduler and v1 schedulers, the counts are affected by parents/selected decks in the same way as new cards.

In the v2 scheduler, the limit is taken solely from the deck you select - any limits on its parents or child decks are ignored.

The v3 scheduler includes learning cards with a 1+ day delay in the review count, so those learning cards will be subject to the daily limit.

New Cards Ignore Review Limit

If using the v3 scheduler, please keep in mind that the new count is capped by the review count by default. If your review limit is set to 200, and you have 190 reviews waiting, a maximum of 10 new cards will be introduced. If your review limit has been reached, no new cards will be shown. If you have a backlog of reviews and still want to introduce new cards, you can do so by suspending the reviews, or increasing your review limit. That said, it is recommended you hold off on new cards until you catch up instead, as introducing more new cards when you're behind will only make the backlog worse.

From Anki 2.1.61 this feature is optional, and can be deactivated globally from the deck options screen.

Per-Deck Daily Limits

From version 2.1.55 it is possible to use the same preset for different decks / subdecks, with customized limits for each one of them. This eliminates the need to create cloned presets just for that purpose, and makes it easier to set custom limits on sub-decks when you have many nested decks.

The options are:

  • Preset: The limit is shared with all decks using this preset.
  • This deck: The limit is specific to this deck.
  • Today only: Make a temporary change to this deck's limit.

New Cards

The settings in this section only affect new cards and cards in initial learning mode. Once a card has graduated (i.e. there are no more learning steps for this card), it becomes a review card, and the settings in this section are no longer applicable.

Learning Steps

Controls the number of learning repetitions, and the delay between them. One or more delays, separated by spaces must be entered. Each time you press Good during review, the card moves to the next step.

For example, let's say that your learning steps are 1m 10m 1d.

  • When you press Again, the card goes back to the first step, and will be shown again approximately 1 minute later.
  • When you press Good on a new card, or a card answered Again, it will move to the next step, and be shown again in approximately 10 minutes.
  • When you press Good on a card after the 10 minute step, it will be delayed until the next day.
  • When you press Good on the card the next day, it will leave learning (i.e. it will graduate), and become a review card. It will be shown again after the delay configured by the graduating interval.

If there’s nothing else to study, Anki will show cards up to 20 minutes early by default. The amount of time to look ahead is configurable in the preferences.

Please see the learning section for more info on how steps work.

Day Boundaries

Anki treats small steps and steps that cross a day boundary differently. With small steps, the cards are shown as soon as the delay has passed, in preference to other waiting cards like reviews. This is done so that you can answer the card as closely to your requested delay as possible. In contrast, if the interval crosses a day boundary, it is automatically converted to days.

Graduating Interval

The delay in days between answering "Good" on a learning card with no steps left, and seeing the card again as a review card. This means that it is the first interval after the learning card becomes a review card. Please see the example in the previous section.

Easy Interval

The delay between answering Easy on a learning card, and seeing it in review mode for the first time.

The Easy button immediately turns a learning card into a review card, and assigns it the delay you have configured. It should always be at least as long as the graduating interval, and typically a few days longer.

Insertion Order

Controls whether Anki should add new cards into the deck randomly, or in order. When you change this option, Anki will re-sort the decks using the current Option Group. Cards with a lower due number will be shown first when studying, by default. Changing this option will automatically update the existing position of new cards.

One caveat with random order mode: if you review many of your new cards, and then add more new cards, the newly added material is statistically more likely to appear than the new cards that were already in the deck. For example, if you have 100 cards in random order, then review the first 50, newly added cards are still given position 1-100, but as you have already reviewed the first 50, the newly added cards are more likely to appear earlier. To correct this, you can change the order to Ordered mode and back again to force a re-sort.

When you select random order, Anki will randomize your notes, keeping the cards of a given note close together. The cards of a given note are shown in the order in which their card types appear, so that siblings are introduced consistently — otherwise you could end up in a state where some notes had all their cards introduced and other notes had only one or two. Please see the "bury related" and "display order" sections below for more info.


When you forget a review card, it is said to have 'lapsed', and the card must be relearnt. The default behaviour for lapsed reviews is to reset the interval to 1 (i.e. make it due tomorrow), and put it in the learning queue for a refresher in 10 minutes. This behaviour can be customized with the options listed below.

Relearning Steps

The same as 'learning steps', but for forgotten reviews. When you fail a card (press Again), the card enters the relearning phase, and before it becomes a review card again, you will have to pass all the relearning steps — or, press Easy on the card.

If you leave the steps blank, the card will skip relearning, and will be assigned a new review delay.

Minimum Interval

Specifies a minimum number of days a card should wait after it finishes relearning. The default is one day, meaning once relearning is finished, it will be shown again the next day.


Control the way Anki handles leeches. Please see the leeches section for more information.

Display Order

The options in this section are taken from the deck you select to study, not the deck of the currently displayed card.

This section is only available when you have the v3 scheduler enabled.

Some further information about display order is available in the studying section.

New Card Gather Order

Controls how Anki gathers cards from each subdeck. The options are:

  • Deck: gathers cards from each deck in order, starting from the top. Cards from each deck are gathered in ascending position. If the daily limit of the selected deck is reached, gathering may stop before all decks have been checked. This order is fastest in large collections, and allows you to prioritize subdecks that are closer to the top.

    Decks / subdecks are always ordered alphabetically, so you can give them a numeric prefix like 001 to control the order they are shown. You can also use _ and ~ as a prefix to place items at the top or bottom.

    Although position order depends initially on the 'Insertion Order' setting above, you can manually reposition cards in different ways.

  • Deck, then random notes: gather cards from each deck in order, starting from the top. Cards from each deck are gathered randomly.

  • Ascending position: gather cards by ascending position (due #), which is typically the oldest-added first.

  • Descending position: gather cards by descending position (due #), which is typically the latest-added first.

  • Random notes: gather cards of randomly selected notes. When sibling burying is disabled, this allows all cards of a note to be seen in a session (eg. both a front->back and back->front card)

  • Random cards: gather cards completely randomly.

New Card Sort Order

Controls how new cards are sorted after they have been gathered. The options are:

  • Card type: Displays cards in order of card type number. If you have sibling burying disabled, this will ensure all front→back cards are seen before any back→front cards. This is useful to have all cards of the same note shown in the same session, but not too close to one another.

  • Order gathered: Shows cards exactly as they were gathered. If sibling burying is disabled, this will typically result in all cards of a note being seen one after the other.

  • Card type, then random: Like Card type, but shuffles the cards of each card type number. If you use Ascending position to gather the oldest cards, you could use this setting to see those cards in a random order, but still ensure cards of the same note do not end up too close to one another.

  • Random note, then card type: Picks notes at random, then shows all of their siblings in order.

  • Random: Fully shuffles the gathered cards.

New/Review Priority

Whether new cards should be mixed in with reviews, or shown before or after them.

Interday Learning/Review Priority

Whether learning cards with a 1+ day delay should be mixed in with reviews, or shown before or after them. Because learning cards tend to be harder than reviews, some users prefer to see them at the end (getting the easy stuff done first), or at the start (allowing more time to review forgotten ones).

Review Sort Order

Controls how review cards are sorted while reviewing. The options are:

  • Due date, then random: The default option prioritizes cards that have been waiting longer, and it's the recommended option when you are up to date, or when you only have a small backlog. If you have taken an extended break or have fallen behind in your reviews, you may want to consider changing the sort order temporarily.

  • Due date, then deck. This also prioritizes cards that have been waiting longer, and then will show reviews for each subdeck in turn.

  • Deck, then due date: This option will ensure reviews are shown for each subdeck in turn. This is generally not recommended, as having material appear consistently in the same order makes it easier to guess the answer based on context, and may lead to weaker memories.

  • Ascending intervals: This will ensure cards with shorter intervals are shown first.

  • Descending intervals: This will ensure cards with larger intervals are shown first.

  • Ascending ease: This will show most difficult cards first.

  • Descending ease: This will allow you to work through the easier material first.

  • Relative overdueness: Display cards that you're most likely to have forgotten first. This is useful if you have a large backlog that may take some time to get through, and you want to reduce the chances of forgetting more cards.

    When using the SM-2 scheduler, overdueness is determined by comparing how overdue cards are, and how long their interval is. For example, a card with a current interval of 5 days that is overdue by 2 days, will display before a card with a current interval of 10 days that is overdue by 3 days.

    When using FSRS, overdueness is calculated based on on each card's retrievability, and the desired retention in the deck preset.


Anki monitors how long it takes you to answer each card, so that it can show you how long was spent studying each day. The time taken does not influence scheduling.

The options are:

  • Maximum answer seconds: The default limit is 60 seconds. If you take longer than that, Anki assumes you have walked away from your computer or have been distracted, and limits the recorded time to 60 seconds, so that you don’t end up with inaccurate statistics. If you consistently take longer than 60 seconds to answer a card (from when question is shown until you press an answer button), you may want to either consider raising this limit, or, ideally, making your cards simpler.
  • Show answer timer: In the review screen, show a timer that counts the number of seconds you're taking to review each card.
  • Stop timer on answer: whether the timer should keep running when you show the answer.

Auto Advance

Requires Anki 23.12 or later. Auto Advance allows you to automatically reveal the answer and/or move to the next card. To use it, you must first set a non-zero time in "seconds to show question" and/or "seconds to show answer". Then, in the review screen, use the Auto Advance action from the More button to start advancing.


When Anki gathers cards, it first gathers intraday learning cards, then interday learning cards, then reviews, and finally new cards. This affects how burying works:

  • If you have all burying options enabled, the sibling that comes earliest in that list will be shown. For example, a review card will be shown in preference to a new card.
  • Siblings later in the list can not bury earlier card types. For example, if you disable burying of new cards, and study a new card, it will not bury any interday learning or review cards, and you may see both a review sibling and new sibling in the same session.

The options are:

  • Bury new siblings: whether other new cards of the same note (e.g., reverse cards, adjacent cloze deletions) will be delayed until the next day.
  • Bury review siblings: whether other review cards of the same note will be delayed until the next day.
  • Bury interday learning siblings: whether other learning cards of the same note with intervals >= 1 day will be delayed until the next day.

For more info about burying cards, please see this section of the manual.


By default, Anki automatically plays audio on the front and back of cards. If you check Don't play audio automatically, Anki will not play audio until you press the replay audio key, r or F5.

Always include question side when replaying audio controls whether audio from the question side should be played when replaying the audio while an answer is shown. Please note that it does not control what happens when you show the answer; for that please see this section.



The Free Spaced Repetition Scheduler (FSRS) is an alternative to Anki's legacy SuperMemo 2 (SM2) scheduler. By more accurately determining when you are likely to forget, it can help you remember more material in the same amount of time. This setting is shared by all deck presets.

When you enable the setting, some new options will become available, and SM-2 specific settings, such as "Graduating interval", "Easy bonus", etc, will be hidden.

Before Enabling

  • Please ensure all of your Anki clients support FSRS. Anki 23.10, AnkiMobile 23.10, and AnkiWeb all support it. AnkiDroid supports it in 2.17alpha3+. If one of your clients doesn't support it, things will not work correctly.
  • If you previously used the 'custom scheduling' version of FSRS, please make sure you clear out the custom scheduling section before enabling FSRS.

FSRS Options

Desired Retention

Desired retention controls how likely you are to remember cards when they are reviewed. The default value of 0.9 will schedule cards so you have a 90% chance of remembering them when they come up for review again.

Here is a graph that shows how adjusting this value will affect your workload:

There are two things to notice:

  • As desired retention approaches 1.0, the frequency that you need to review cards increases drastically. For example, imagine you have a card that you have a 90% chance of remembering after 100 days. If your desired retention was 0.95, you'd need to review it after 47 days instead (approximately twice as frequently). At 0.97, the delay would be only 27 days (approximately 3.7x as frequently). At 0.99, you'd be reviewing every 9 days (more than 10x what you'd be doing with the defaults).

  • As desired retention decreases, you'll forget a greater percentage of your cards, and those cards will need to be reviewed again. Eventually, you'll get to a point where the forgotten cards contribute more to your workload than you gain from the longer delays, which is why you see the workload on the left of the graph increasing. Also, bear in mind that forgetting material frequently is demotivating.

For these reasons, we suggest you be conservative when adjusting this number, and recommend you keep it between 0.85 and 0.95.

SM-2 retention

If your actual retention before switching to FSRS was significantly different from 0.9, adjusting this value will allow Anki to better estimate your memory state when it encounters cards that are missing review logs. Since review logs typically won't be missing unless you explicitly deleted them to free up space, most users will not need to adjust this.

FSRS parameters

FSRS parameters affect how cards are scheduled. They are not intended to be manually modified. Once you've accumulated 1000+ reviews, you can have Anki optimize the parameters for you, based on your review history.

Reschedule cards on change

This option controls whether the due dates of cards will be changed when you enable FSRS, or change the parameters. The default is not to reschedule cards: future reviews will use the new scheduling, but there will be no immediate change to your workload. If rescheduling is enabled, the due dates of cards will be changed, often resulting in a large number of cards becoming due, so activating this option is not recommended when first switching from SM2.

If you wish to visualize how FSRS would change your schedule without altering your workload, there are two ways you can do so:

  • Enable FSRS without rescheduling, and compare the interval and stability graphs. The interval graph will show the current intervals of cards; the stability graph will show the intervals FSRS would give cards if the desired retention is 0.9.
  • Create a backup, enable FSRS with rescheduling, check the future due graph, and then undo or restore from the backup.

Optimize FSRS parameters

The FSRS optimizer uses machine learning to learn your memory patterns and find parameters that best fit your review history. To do this, the optimizer requires several reviews to fine-tune the parameters.

If you have less than 1,000 reviews, you can use the default parameters that are already entered into the "FSRS parameters" field. Even with the default parameters, FSRS should work well for most users.

Once you've done 1000+ reviews in Anki, you can use the Optimize button to analyze your review history, and automatically generate parameters that are optimal for your memory and the content you're studying. Parameters are preset-specific, so if you have decks that vary wildly in difficulty, it is recommended to assign them separate presets, as the parameters for easy decks and hard decks will be different. There is no need to optimize your parameters frequently - once every few months is sufficient.

By default, parameters will be calculated from the review history of all decks using the current preset. You can optionally adjust the search before calculating the parameters, if you'd like to alter which cards are used for optimizing the parameters.

You can optimize the parameters for all of your presets at once, by clicking on the down arrow in the top right, then choosing "Optimize all presets".

Evaluate FSRS parameters

You can use the Evaluate button in the "Optimize FSRS parameters" section to see metrics that show how well the parameters in the "Model parameters" field fit your review history. Smaller numbers indicate a better fit to your review history.

Log-loss doesn't have an intuitive interpretation. RMSE (bins) can be interpreted as the average difference between the predicted probability of recalling a card (R) and the measured (from the review history) probability. For example, RMSE=5% means that, on average, FSRS is off by 5% when predicting R.

Note that log-loss and RMSE (bins) are not perfectly correlated, so two decks may have similar RMSE values but very different log-loss values, and vice-versa.

Compute optimal retention

This experimental tool assumes you're starting with 0 cards, and will attempt to calculate the amount of material you'll be able to retain in the given time frame. The estimated retention will greatly depend on your inputs, and if it significantly differs from 0.9, it's a sign that the time you've allocated each day is either too low or too high for the amount of cards you're trying to learn. This number can be useful as a reference, but it is not recommended to copy it into the desired retention field.

Learning and Re-learning Steps

(Re)learning steps of 1+ days are not recommended when using FSRS. The main reason they were popular with the old SM-2 scheduler is because repeatedly failing a card after it has graduated from the learning phase could reduce its ease a lot, leading to what some people called "ease hell". This is not a problem that FSRS suffers from. By keeping your learning steps under a day, you will allow FSRS to schedule cards at times it has calculated are optimum for your material and memory. Another reason not to use longer learning steps is because FSRS may end up scheduling the first review for a shorter time than your last learning step, leading to the Hard button showing a longer time than Good.

We also recommend you keep the number of learning steps to a minimum. Evidence shows that repeating a card multiple times in a single day after you've remembered it does not significantly help with memory, so your time is better spent on other cards or a shorter study session

Add-On Compatibility

Some add-ons can cause conflicts with FSRS. As a general rule of thumb, if an add-on affects a card's intervals, it shouldn't be used with FSRS. A list of commonly used add-ons and their FSRS compatibility can be found in Add-on Compatibility.


For more info on FSRS, please check:

Maximum Interval

Allows you to place an upper limit on the time Anki will wait to reshow a card. The default is 100 years; you can decrease this to a smaller number if you’re willing to trade extra study time for higher retention.

Starting Ease

Controls the easiness that cards start out with. It is set when a card graduates from learning for the first time. It defaults to 2.50, meaning that once you have finished learning a card, answering Good on subsequent reviews will increase the delay by approximately 2.5x (e.g. if the last delay was 10 days, the next delay would be around 25 days). Based upon how you rate the card in subsequent reviews, the easiness may increase or decrease from its starting value.

Easy Bonus

An extra multiplier applied to the interval when a review card is answered Easy. With the default value of 1.30, Easy will give an interval that is 1.3 times the Good interval (e.g. if the Good interval was 10 days, the Easy interval would be around 13 days).

Interval Modifier

An extra multiplier that is applied to all reviews. At its default of 1.00 it does nothing. If you set it to 0.80, though, for example, intervals will be generated at 80% of their normal size (so a 10 day interval would become 8 days). You can thus use the multiplier to make Anki present cards more or less frequently than it would otherwise, trading study time for retention or vice versa.

For moderately difficult material, the average user should find they remember approximately 90% of mature cards that come up for review. You can find out your own performance by opening the graphs/statistics for a deck and looking at the Answer Buttons graph - mature retention is the correct% on the right side of the graph. If you haven’t been studying long, you may not have any mature cards yet. As performance with new cards and younger cards can vary considerably, it’s a good idea to wait until you have a reasonable amount of mature reviews before you start drawing conclusions about your retention rate.

On the SuperMemo website, they suggest that you can find an appropriate multiplier for a desired retention rate. Their formula boils down to:

log(desired retention%) / log(current retention%)

Imagine we have a current retention rate of 85% and we want to increase it to 90%. We’d calculate the modifier as:

log(90%) / log(85%) = 0.65

You can use Google to calculate it for you.

If you plug the resulting 65% into the interval modifier, you should find over time that your retention moves closer to your desired retention.

One important thing to note however is that the trade-off between time spent studying and retention is not linear: we can see here that to increase our retention by 5 percentage points, we would have to study 35% more frequently. If the material you are learning is very important then it may be worth the extra effort – that is, of course, something you will need to decide for yourself. If you are simply worried that you are forgetting too much, then you may find investing more time at the initial learning stage and/or using mnemonics will give you more gain for less effort.

One final thing to note is that Anki forces a new interval to be at least 1 day longer than it was previously, so that you do not get stuck reviewing with the same interval forever. If your goal is to repeat a card once a day for multiple days, you can do that by setting more learning mode steps, instead of by adjusting this modifier.

Hard Interval

The multiplier used when you use the Hard button. The percentage is relative to the previous interval: e.g. with a default of 1.20, a card with a 10-day interval will be given 12 days.

New Interval

The multiplier used when you use the Again button on a review card. The default 0.00 means that a review card's delay is reset to zero when you forget it (which then becomes 1 day after the minimum interval is applied).

If changed from the default, it is possible for forgotten cards to preserve part of their previous delay. For example, if a card had a 100 day interval, and you set the New Interval to 0.20, the new interval would be 20 days.

While preserving part of the interval may seem to make sense, SuperMemo has observed that preserving part of the delay can actually be counter-productive. For this reason, we recommend you leave it on the default setting.

Custom Scheduling

Please see this page.